Unfortunately, even in modern developed times there is a risk of infection with helminths. In order to treat and prevent this phenomenon, it is necessary at least to get acquainted with the main types of worms.
types of worms
In medical sources, where you can find the answer to the question of what types of worms a person has, they provide data on a large number of varieties. Of course, certain types are the most common. According to the classification, they can be divided into 3 main types. These are: roundworms, tapeworms and flukes.
The first in the list of types of worms in humans is the reference to roundworms. They are also known as nematodes. They got their name because of the body structure, because if you take a cross section of an individual, you can see the resulting roundness. Despite the fact that there are more than 20, 000 of their species worldwide, only a few of them are normally found in humans.
The most common roundworms include:
- Roundworm. These worms are pretty big. They can grow up to half a meter long. The width varies between 4-5 cm, the color is usually pink but in some cases it can be more white or more red. These worms are mainly located in the small intestine, but in rare cases they can also be found in the bile ducts. The larvae simultaneously move very easily throughout the body through the bloodstream. Your last stop is the lungs. Here are the most comfortable conditions for their maturation, since this species of parasites belongs to the anaerobes. As they become more viable, they move to the intestines. Roundworms have a long lifespan, which can be 12-14 months. Outside the human body, these worms live in soil conditions where they lay several thousand eggs daily;
- pinworms. Most often in children, since the cause of infection can be poorly washed hands or products. Slightly less often they get into the body with dust particles. Their size is much smaller than that of roundworms. Males reach a length of 3 mm, and females - up to 13-14 mm. The color is completely white. Their preferred habitat is the initial part of the large intestine. Eggs are laid in the anus, closer to the anus. Their life expectancy is also much shorter than that of roundworms, only a few months.
- trichinella. These medium-sized worms, which grow to only 4 mm in length, most commonly enter the living human body as part of infected flesh. The larvae live in muscle tissue, mainly in the eye and chewing tissue, but adults prefer to be localized in the gut. Trichinella is a danger to humans because without proper treatment it can be fatal.
Tapeworms are characterized by a flat physique and the complete absence of the gastrointestinal tract. The length of individuals can reach several meters, which makes them look like a long ribbon. They prefer to live in the intestine or gastric duct. Among them are the following types:
- bull tapeworm. This is one of the largest types of tapeworms. The length of an individual can reach 15-20 meters. The worm sticks to the surface of the small intestine and begins to absorb the substances necessary for a person. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, it can live up to 10 years. Infection usually occurs through consumption of contaminated, undercooked meat;
- dwarf tapeworm. It got its name due to its small size, which averages 4-5 mm. You can get infected with such a tapeworm through poorly washed vegetables and even dirty hands.
- wide band. Another great view. Its length can be up to 10 meters, the width is usually larger than that of other worms. The larvae enter the body with infected fish and grow into an adult in just 3. 5 weeks. Lives mainly in the small intestine. Life expectancy can reach several tens of years;
- Echinococcus. Small worms, the length of which, as a rule, does not exceed 5 mm. Infection occurs through infected animals: cats and dogs. This species differs in that individuals are localized not in the intestines, but in the lungs or liver. They are dangerous because they can provoke the formation of cysts that later need to be surgically removed.
These worms can be very harmful to the body, the earlier they are detected the better.
Flukes, like tapeworms, are flat parasites due to their body structure. They are also called liverworms because their main habitat is the liver and bile ducts. Their main types are:
- Fluke. Also known as a cat fluke. It lives mainly in rivers and lakes, which means that it gets into the human body along with infected fish that has been poorly processed. Pets can act as carriers. Individuals are quite small, rarely reaching 12-13 mm. In a person, they can live in absolutely any organ;
- Chinese or oriental fluke. It is characterized by a transparent red hue of the body and a small size of no more than 2. 5 cm. It penetrates the human body identically to the ordinary fluke. It can lay more than 3. 5 thousand eggs a day;
- fasciola. This is a larger flatworm, its length can be 5-7 cm, viable only in freshwater conditions. It dies in salty springs. A person can become infected with Fasciola, for example, by drinking contaminated raw water while bathing, but also by eating plants. The risk is particularly high when dealing with aquatic or wild species.
Although liver flukes are small, they can be dangerous to humans. The patient may develop fever in addition to the standard symptoms.
The simplest organisms
The simplest organisms have existed on Earth for millions of years. To date, science reads more than 14. 5 thousand species. Like other parasites, their preferred habitat is the soil, water in reservoirs and, of course, the human body. They can remain on the surface of vegetables and fruits for some time, the use of which often leads to infection.
When it comes to infecting a human with protozoa, in most cases Giardia is meant. Your vitality is to be envied. They withstand even the most adverse environmental conditions.
In their structure, they are distinguished by the presence of four pairs of flagella and a special disk that performs a sucking function. It is through them that Giardia reliably adheres to the inner surface of the intestine and begins to parasitize.
symptoms of manifestation
The fact that worms appeared in the human body can be understood by a variety of signs. However, most of them are general in nature and indicate the presence of an inflammatory process. This can confuse the patient and force him to look for the cause in other diseases.
During this time, the patient can determine for himself:
- tiredness, malaise, exhaustion;
- pallor of the skin;
- dizziness and sometimes headache;
- Increased anxiety, irritability. Marked aggression can be observed in children;
- sleep deterioration. Usually worried about insomnia;
- pain in the joints, pulling in the muscles;
- Increased salivation.
Fatigue is one of the signs of the presence of worms.
The following signs, reminiscent of an allergic reaction or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, can mislead the patient:
- yellowing of the skin;
- rash on body;
- attacks of bronchial asthma;
- Stool disorders: constipation or diarrhea;
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain in the abdomen and hypochondrium;
- Slightly increased body temperature.
But the more typical symptoms of this situation that people most often suspect they have parasites are:
- Weight loss for no apparent reason. At the same time, it will be very difficult to return the kilograms that have left;
- itching in the anus;
- bruxism. This phenomenon manifests itself in the grinding of teeth during sleep.
Despite the fact that there are many signs of the presence of parasites in the body, sometimes this phenomenon is completely asymptomatic, and therefore people may not be aware of it for months.
Identifying helminths in the body is not that easy. The standard procedure in this case is to examine the feces for eggworm. I must say that sometimes it may be necessary to do an analysis 3 to 5 times to detect worms in the stool.
Only a doctor knows how to identify certain types of worms. Without test results, this is not possible alone. Depending on the symptoms present, the doctor may order the following examination procedures:
- blood analysis. In this case, the number of indicators such as proteins and eosinophils is analyzed;
- Analysis of abrasions from the anus;
- Vaginal scraping analysis.
Also, additional measures may be required in some cases. Such as:
- sputum examination;
- The study of the composition of urine and bile;
- CT scan;
- ultrasonic procedure.
After the parasites are identified, the doctor will create a treatment plan.
Self-treatment of parasites is not allowed. This is due to the following factors:
- The preparations contain a different active substance, which means that they have a harmful effect on different types of helminths;
- Some drugs can only destroy larvae of worms, but not adults;
- All medications have some side effects.
In this regard, it is necessary to select drugs based on the results of diagnostic procedures.
Preparations may contain the following active substances:
- mebendazole. It only affects worms from the pinworm genus;
- diethylcarbamazine. Medicines based on it are prescribed when there are filariae in the patient's body;
- Levamisole. Has a wide spectrum of action. Destroys both pinworms and roundworms, as well as other worms;
- Hydroxysine naphthoate Bephenia. Effectively fights roundworms;
- albendazole. Necessary in the treatment of diseases caused by echinococci;
- piperazine adipate. It is used to remove roundworms and pinworms from the body.
Traditional medicine has not stood aside in this matter either. It offers several opportunities that may not always completely cleanse the body of parasites, but at least can slow down their reproduction and development.
Examples of such methods are:
- Pumpkin seed. They are taken in their pure form or a decoction is made on their basis;
- Watermelon seeds. Apply similarly to pumpkin;
- wormwood tincture;
- tincture of alcohol and wormwood juice;
- Sandy Immortelle.
It is important to note that before using folk methods, you should obtain the consent of your doctor and, of course, exclude an allergic reaction to the components used.
What are dangerous worms for humans?
Worms live not only in the human body, they literally parasitize, take away useful substances, and also suck blood. The body is in a state of intoxication. The result of a long stay of helminths in a person can have such negative consequences as:
- weakening of the immune system;
- Violation of the gastrointestinal tract. Poor digestibility of food, the appearance of ulcers;
- The development of allergies;
- formation of cysts;
- Damage to the organs in which they live.
And do not forget that some types of parasites are very, very dangerous. Ignoring their presence can lead to the worst outcome.
The vast majority of people have encountered worms at least once in their lives. Children are particularly affected. And this is quite justified, apart from the fact that they have weaker immunity compared to adults, they also often ignore the rules of hygiene.
In general, methods that help reduce the risk of infection are not complicated at all. You mean to yourself:
- Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. Hands must not only be rinsed, but washed thoroughly with soap;
- Vegetables, fruits, berries must be washed with plenty of water;
- Any meat: cattle, poultry or fish should be washed very well before cooking. The heat treatment must also be thorough. It is not worth taking risks and cooking meat with blood if there is no confidence in its quality and safety;
- Periodic antihelminthic prophylaxis in children. This is best done by consulting a doctor;
- Farm animals and pets are also subject to medicinal prophylaxis. It makes no difference whether they live in the courtyard of a private house or in the room itself. If a dog or cat eats raw meat, it is imperative that worm prevention is carried out.
Such procedures will help not to hit parasites for as long as possible.